Semiconductors are materials that have monumental impact on human life. In every device that we use, semiconductors are present everywhere – in microprocessor ships or transistors or any essential device which we use in our everyday life. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry there are various big players. It has become a multi-billion dollar industry today. In our day-to-day life we use lot of such appliances or products which have semiconductors as their main component – from microwave to microprocessor chips to transistors to computers. In computers which are life to most of us have these semiconductors at their heart. Most of the semiconductors are designed from silicon, that’s why silicon is soul of any electronic device.

Amongst all semiconductor manufacturing devices, diode is the simplest one. It is a principal element of all semiconductors which are used in the fabless engineering industry or any other industry.  The most commonly designed components like ASIC designs, integrated circuits and microprocessor production, everywhere silicon is the major ingredient. Another important component is germanium which is specifically used in transistors and various other electronic devices. It is used in various industries including fiber optics and infrared optics. It is also used in polarization catalysts, solar cell applications etc. Another very popular semiconductor is Gallium arsenide. It is a III/ V semiconductor and is extensively used in the manufacturing of devices like microwave frequency integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, solar cells, laser diodes, and in the production of optical windows.

While developing the silicon semiconductor devices, fabrication is a major process. It involves various important steps. Crystal preparation is the first step which initiates the process. In this process a single crystal of silicon is grown into a solid cylindrical shape. Then wafer preparation is done where solid cylinder of silicon is cut with a diamond saw blade uniformly. Then thin film generation is done where physical or electrical isolation between two adjacent layers is supplied or wafer is prepared for doping and lithography stages. Here Lithography is a process where patterns on materials are engraved. Then a major step is performed where high precision flat metal parts are manufactured, which is also known as chemical milling. Furthermore, doping is performed where we add impurities into an extremely pure semiconductor. This process aims to modulate the electrical properties of a semiconductor. Finally, metallization is performed where material is treated and combined with a metal. This completes the process.

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