The USSR’s launch of Sputnik spur the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, later DARPA) in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.[4][5] ARPA created the Information Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. The IPTO’s purpose was to find ways to address the US military’s concern about survivability of their communications networks, and as a first step interconnect their computers at the Pentagon, Cheyenne Mountain, and Strategic Air Command headquarters (SAC). J. C. R. Licklider, a promoter of entire networking, was special to head the IPTO. Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after suitable interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that recognized Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.

At the IPTO, Licklider’s successor Ivan Sutherland in 1965 got Lawrence Roberts to start a project to make a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran,[6] who had written an extensive study for the United States Air Force that recommended packet switching (opposed to circuit switching) to achieve better network robustness and disaster survivability. Roberts had worked at the MIT Lincoln Laboratory initially established to work on the design of the SAGE system. UCLA professor Leonard Kleinrock had provided the hypothetical foundations for packet networks in 1962, and later, in the 1970s, for hierarchical routing, concepts which have been the underpinning of the development towards today’s Internet.

INTRODUCTION OF INTERNET

The IInternet is generally used in the development of OS. An OS is a software (collection of programs) that controls the special functions of a computer. Also it make The Internet is a global system consistent of computer networks that use the ordinary Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are connected by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet can also be defined as a worldwide interconnection of computers and computer networks that make easy the sharing or exchange of information among users. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the communications to support electronic mail.

Most usual communications media with telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries.

USES OF INTERNET

The Internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, mainly through mobile Internet devices. Mobile phones, datacards , handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to join to the Internet from anywhere there is a wireless network supporting that device’s technology.

Educational objects all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is existing from websites. Examples range from CBeebies , through school and high-school revision guides, virtual universities, to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar. In distance education, help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time, or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in exacting are important enablers of both formal and informal education.

STRUCTURE OF INTERNET

The Internet structure and its handling characteristics have been studied expansively. It has been firm that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks. parallel to the way the viable Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into large sub networks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2 (successor of the Abilene Network), and the UK’s national research and education network JANET. These in turn are built around smaller networks (see also the list of academic computer network organizations.

Technology

Protocols

The most major component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides addressing systems (IP addresses) for computers on the Internet. IP enables internetworking and basically establishes the Internet itself. IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the original version used on the first generation of the today’s Internet and is still in dominant use. It was designed to address up to ~4.3 billion (109) Internet

 

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